The story of Job takes place very early in biblical history. In fact, some suggest Moses as the potential author since it was written right after the Exodus. Moses remained in Midian, which was a neighbor of Uz and the homeland of Job (Job 1:1). This would give it a date of writing around 1445 B.C., but the book isn’t with the 1st five books of Moses because Jews compiled books according to their theme and genre, and they viewed this book more a book of poetry, than history which is why it appears first among the five poetry books.
Here are some reasons that we believe this book was written around the time of Moses.
- Job lives 140 years after his sufferings (Job 42:16). He was about 210 when he died. This is about how long the patriarchs were living during this time.
- Job’s wealth was counted by livestock (Job 1:3; 42:12) which was how Abraham’s (Genesis 12:16; 13:2) and Jacob’s (Genesis 30:43; 32:5) livestock was counted.
- The Sabeans and Chaldeans (Job 1:15, 17) were nomads in Abraham’s time. Later in history, they were no longer nomadic.
- Job’s daughters were heirs to the estate along with their brothers (Job 42:15) which was not permissible under Mosaic Law (Num 27:8).
- Several names were used in the Book that were only familiar to the time of the Patriarchs: Sheba (Genesis 25:3), Tema (Genesis 25:15); Eliphaz (Genesis 36:4), and Uz (Genesis 22:21).
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